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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

外部事件的影响。《消费者报告》(Consumer Reports)杂志曾经对Model S大加吹捧,但最近该杂志也报道了它的一些常见故障,包括门把手失效,中控触屏白屏,导致车内大部分功能不能使用等等。汽车网站Edmunds.com也找了Model S的麻烦。更多此类报告无疑会影响特斯拉到目前为止非常正面的声誉。

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John Authers
The improvements in education levels mirrored the development of China's education system. Independent research into China's education situation showed that overall education development was better than the world average last year, Yuan Guiren, minister of education, said in March.
但是,我们也许终于走到了终点。也许只有在该剧落幕之后,它对成衣秀的影响力才会终结。也许我们对历史无休止的模仿(是的,我们曾模仿70年代的风格以及80年代的大波浪头和高垫肩)才会最终停止。

纽约现在排名第7,比去年上升了15个名次。近年来,纽约的生活成本涨幅巨大,较2011年上升了42个名次。
The city offers excitement beyond your expectations, with grand churches, a richly varied number of museums, a growing modern-art scene and streets that come alive with summer festivals.
报告还发现,在“智力资本和创新”及“技术成熟度”等指标方面排名较高的城市综合排名也很高,这很明确地表明,技术上先进的城市更有可能成为“机遇城市”。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

中介业务员月入7万 秘招为买断房源重新包装

如果你没听过这句话,你去年绝对没上过中文网。这句简单的话是留在魔兽BBS上的,不知道什么原因——有说法是有网络公司是幕后推手——这句话吸引了710万人点击,在发布后24小时内产生了30万条评论。
2. 美国页岩油。截至2014年底,美国页岩油日产量已经超过900万桶,比2007年增加了80%。这些页岩油是造成石油供给过剩的主要力量,而供过于求是2014年油价暴跌的诱因之一。总的来说,美国页岩油开采公司都搬起石头砸了自己的脚,但关键在于,西德州轻质低硫原油(WTI)价格跌破60美元对它们有何影响?页岩油钻机数量不断减少,相关开支也遭到削减,然而到目前为止,美国页岩油产量依然稳定。按照当前油价,这个行业能否维持产出水平,或者说美国页岩油产量会不会减少将对国际市场供应乃至油价产生重大影响。
据当地媒体报道,这一犯罪团伙设在广西壮族自治区首府南宁,他们向腐肉中注射化学药品,使其增重50%,这样每吨腐肉便可获利16000元人民币(合1750英镑)。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

adj. 透视的
Coordinated reform of medical services, medical insurance, and the medicine industry
I think it’s a perfect continuation of my last post of being a football widow and I simply had to share the rules here. I LOVE rule no.6.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Whenever I talk to people about the future, I'm struck by their belief that it is knowable. The impression I get is that most people imagine the future like a book ending: already written and readable if you can just steal a quick look at the last few pages. What they find difficult is accepting that the pages aren't written yet. The future hasn't happened, hasn't even been planned--and cannot be known because it doesn't exist.
  • 今年居民每月购房消费近9000亿 信贷宽松成主因
  • 目前已经被泄露的照片多达10个G。据《北京日报》12月1日报道,著名在线P2P借贷平台"借贷宝"也和此次事件有关。
  • 楼市局部现回暖 市场分化仍持续
  • 西安规划局半价团购191套房?市纪委监委介入调查
  • Chinese consumer prices rose in January, an encouraging sign for the world’s second largest economy in a month characterised by turbulence in its financial markets.
    There is even is a standard demagogic playbook.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the LED显示产品却被光明正大抄袭 何时能改?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

家居建材保修期没有统一标准 维权成难题

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

央行副行长:货币政策并非助推房价单一因素

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Shanghai is the most popular destination for new job seekers, followed by Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Beijing. Provincial capitals cities in central and western regions are also among the top choices for the new graduates.
    Annual shipments by Chinese smartphone manufacturers Huawei, OPPO and vivo rocketed all three companies into the world's top 5 smartphone manufacturers last year, according to the latest data released by third-party market intelligence firm IDC.
  • A series of explosions on Aug. 12 that originated in a warehouse illegally storing hazardous chemicals in the port city of Tianjin killed 173 people, injured hundreds and left behind post-apocalyptic scenes of destruction. The blasts raised serious questions about the lax enforcement of safety regulations during China's rapid industrialization.
    Let us look at what lies ahead for the rest of 2017 in trade:
    On this season I have but one thing to say: I love you.值此佳节,我只有一句话要告诉你:我爱你
    The people of both countries have the wisdom to properly manage their differences, there is a need and there are also conditions for us to continue to expand our common interests.
    In the Robot World Cup Soccer final on June 30th the Dutch robots weren’t up against the Chinese team “Water” from Beijing. Within a minute the Chinese team scored a goal. The Dutch made an equalizer before half-time, yet in the second half team Water scored again.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 整改期限已过 有中介仍未公示证照
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 竞争白热化 家居行业今年面临大洗牌

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

包括圣诞购物季在内,第四季度的电脑出货量共计7190万台。IDC方面表示,这是自IDC公司开始追踪该数据以来最大的降幅。
华盛顿:到十月份底,印度减持美国政府债券到775亿美元,尽管作为世界上最大经济体的美国的经济在稳步的上升。
专注于新兴市场的基金集团经历了难熬的一年,安本(Aberdeen)和安石(Ashmore)的资产管理规模都严重缩水。新兴市场交易所交易基金(ETF)也遭遇大规模赎回,ETF.com数据显示,投资者从贝莱德(BlackRock)旗下基金iShares MSCI Emerging Markets以及先锋(Vanguard)富时新兴市场(FTSE Emerging Markets)撤出95亿美元。
Sounds like Taylor Swift—but, in fact, it’s her frequent competitor, Katy Perry. Largely because of her Prismatic World Tour, which is now winding down, Perry pulled in $135 million this year. She grossed more than $2 million per city over the course of 126 shows in our scoring period, and added to her total through deals with Coty, Claire’s and Covergirl.
已经60岁的微软老大净资产达到750亿美元,尽管比起2015年缩水了42亿美元,却仍足以傲视群雄。自2014年超越墨西哥首富卡洛斯·斯利姆·埃卢以来,盖茨实现了福布斯富豪榜榜首三连庄。
好莱坞的明星们早已着手准备了数周,尤其是对于去当地南瓜地挑选一些南瓜这样的事来说。
"When the actual dependency ratio of pension insurance gets down to three to one, the payment cannot be lower than 17 percent. If it drops to two to one ratio, it means that everyone is going to pay 25 percent. The financial burden gets heavier when the dependency ratio gets lower. The restructuring of pension system must be finalized in two years." Yang said.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Not until recently anyway. But scientists at Weill Cornell Medical College have at last managed to—at least with mice and monkeys. This produced artificial retinas, whose chips convert images into electronic signals and whose tiny projectors convert electronic signals into light.
  • 端午多地楼市成交上涨 沪日均成交面积反下跌
  • ['kɑ:sl]
    Some scientists believe people with excellent recall and the ability to remember everything use a special mental filing system to keeping things organized in their memories. Mental tricks are also used by magicians to wow audiences with seemingly impossible feats of memory. But do you need to know special tricks or have an eidetic memory to remember everything? If you're worried you've forgotten more in life than you ever knew, don't worry. Science has you covered! Check out these 10 scientific secrets to a perfect memory.
  • LED照明行业竞争过度 业内称三五年内更难做
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 愿你度过最美好的新年!
    清华大学的毕业生以毕业五年后平均月薪14822元高居榜首。39所高校生跻身万元户行列。此外,共有185所高校的毕业生平均月薪突破8000元大关,789所高校的平均月薪突破了6000元大关。
  • 'The market for colored diamonds is really, really high, because they are so rare,' he said.
    Consoles: Xbox One, Xbox 360
  • 清华大学是国内表现最好的大学,有三项学科的排名进入全球前10。北京大学则是有两项学科排名挤入前十。就清华大学而言,建筑/建成环境和土木/结构工程学均排名第8,材料科学排名第10。
    顾伦德.查达哈的这部殖民题材电影讲的是1947年的英印权力移交及其余波。当时蒙巴顿勋爵夫妇的府邸有500名仆人,他们中有印度教徒、穆斯林和锡克教徒。休.博内威利和吉莉安.安德森饰演主人公夫妇。
  • A happy New Year to you.
    charity
    单词statement 联想记忆:
  • DIHK's foreign business chief Volker Treier said the volume of goods exported to China from Germany grew rapidly in the latter part of 2016, Chinanews.com reported.
    Zhaopin.com received 93,420 effective samples for the survey, which covered new grads completing higher vocational, undergraduate, master's or doctoral programs.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 全国房地产开发投资增速回落至1.3% shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

2019中国北京世园会植物馆 生动演绎“植物:不可思议的智慧”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

北京市政协建言资政会聚焦老城保护利用与有机更新

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

橱柜企业面临五大困境 想发展需如何突围?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

买房误信“内部优惠” 被骗数十万“诚意金”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Economists had likewise expected year-to-date urban fixed asset investment, a rough proxy for long-term spending, to remain at September’s level of 8.2 per cent year on year growth.
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  • 营改增后 北京二手普通住房交易如何缴税?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

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  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 关于7月9日的枪击案,调查人员已逮捕两名年轻人,其中一名18岁。
    Piano and ballet performance “On My Fingertips And Toes” (Lang Lang and Hou Honglan)
    社交时我找不到合适的话题
  • We'll start our review with the South American nations, and who else could we begin with, but the hosts Brazil. Rewind 18 months and they looked like they'd be struggling, but the appointment of 'Big Phil' Scolari has been inspired, and he's brought a belief to the team that was previously missing. Last years 3:0 demolition of Spain in the Confederations Cup final shocked many experts, and all of a sudden the Brazilians have expectations on them. Whilst you can't argue with that scoreline, we still wonder if Brazil have the firepower to win such a long tournament. Neymar is expected to conjure up the magic, but they're relying on Fred to come up with the goals. No disrepect to Fred, but the last two Brazilian teams to win the World Cup, in 2002 and 1994, could count on the likes of Ronaldo and Romario to lead the front line, two genuine legends of the game.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 祝老师新年充满平安和爱。
  • 100天内两度降息 专家:购房者入市意愿增加
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Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 雄安:将针对房地产开发项目、户口迁入等出台具体配套政策
  • Household substance abuse
  • 下一步房地产市场如何改革?官方回应四大经济热点
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

10月东莞房价创年内新高 销售均价9500元/平

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 全国首套房贷利率连涨20月 100万贷30年利息多还13万
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 上半年红木企业运行压力大 红木原材、制品价格微幅下调
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

尽管当下是一个全球性的经济环境,但仅有约20%的美国人会说第二门语言。Sixty Vocab的目标就是以其在线外语游戏改变这一现状。基于2000个单词相当于一门外语的六成精髓的假设,Sixty Vocab试图使学习必要词汇的过程变得有趣。这些在线游戏能教你在对话中最为常用的词汇,并辅以限制时间的规则——你在越短的时间内猜出单词,你就能越快地进入到下一个阶段。Sixty Vocab填补了你高中课程和昂贵外语学习项目之间的空白,为那些想要在早餐咖啡或通勤时间学习一门外语的人提供了一个独一无二的选择。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

the truly embarrassing press conference from Vlade Divac, the leaks of Vivek Ranadive's lust for Buddy Hield, and the failure to sell off a host of spare veteran roster parts that theoretically could have been turned into picks.
Against: It's not yet managing to win top honors from critics' groups.
今年世界卫生组织宣布H1N1型流感为全球性传染病。庆幸的是,这种病毒远没有人们最初想的那样危险,而最新面世的疫苗似乎已经平息了那弥留在人们心头久久不能散去的恐惧。
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The stomach-churning finding is not the first to be exposed in the area. Police in Guangxi, along China's border with Vietnam, have stepped up anti-smuggling operations over the last year and have raided seven illegal food processors.
“This young Vermonter clearly has an interest in service and anyone putting ideas forward with the goal of making Vermont a better place is appreciated here,” Scott's spokeswoman, Rebecca Kelley, tells PEOPLE.
竞争对手在网上的表现如何?谷歌的搜索广告关键词规划工具会帮助你解答这个问题。“搜索广告”这个词可能会令有些企业家望而却步,因为它似乎会要求你买广告位。但事实并非如此,只要有谷歌账号,任何人都能使用这个关键词规划工具(不过你首先必须点击Adwords的进入端口)。然后你可以使用关键词规划工具来看看在你从事的领域中,哪些关键词会吸引最多的搜索量,然后找出吸引流量的机会。
Summly和雅虎拒绝对交易的条款置评。
The top 20 comprises 13 US universities, four British and three others.
上榜理由:被低估的欧洲瑰宝

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

4月北京住宅租赁量价齐跌 租房淡季房源多租客少

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • STEP 6: FIND A WATSON
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • 最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里?奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是蒂莫西?柴勒梅德了。
  • 外媒:中国楼市还将恶化 或突然降价大甩卖
  • 10月中国进口同比下降18.8%,降幅较9月的20.4%略有改善。石油和其他大宗商品价格大幅走低也帮助压低了进口总值。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 为行业代言 全联房地产商会2017年会在京举办
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 这些项目一般是为平均年龄22岁的学员设计的。
  • 节目17 小品《你摊上事儿了》,秦海璐 王茜华 孙涛 方清平

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

国务院点名发展短租公寓 市场瓶颈待破

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